The conditions for the deployment of mobile networks vary significantly from one country to another depending on the licences granted by the authorities, the size and density of the population and territory to be covered, or even the type of mobile services offered.
the challenges of deployment
Starting from these constraints, it is up to the operators to optimize the deployment of their network by juggling several considerations. The web of antennas must be large enough to remain within reach of the greatest number of potential users. It must also be designed to overcome the obstacles in the way of propagation of the radio waves: landscape variations, materials that stop or weaken the signal, tunnels, etc.
Finally, the installation of base stations must be dense enough to meet the needs of traffic and absorb calling peaks with an optimal signal quality. This is why the cells around the base stations tend to be very large in rural areas and much smaller in urban areas where the population and mobile traffic are more concentrated.